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Abbé Warré's book
Hefting the Warré hive
When assessing the amount of stores to leave for winter, Warré advises counting full combs of honey.1 One comb weighs about 2 kg, so six combs are needed to make up Warré's recommended winter stores weight of 12 kg. This would of course apply to the climatic conditions of northern France. In other places, greater or lower weights of stores may be needed.
Counting full combs of honey requires that the boxes be inspected from above and below, or that combs be individually removed. But if one wants just to assess the weight of stores without opening the hive, the hive can simply be hefted. The traditional way of hefting is to lift one side of the hive slightly and feel the weight. The hefting can be limited to one or two upper boxes. Experience will tell whether the felt weight is satisfactory or not. However, this will seem somewhat unreliable, especially to beginners who do not know what a well stocked hive should feel like. And there may be circumstances when even experienced beeks want more accurate knowledge of the weight of stores present. The solution then is to use some kind of weighing device. This page looks at the options, starting with the cheapest and simplest, though possibly the least accurate solution.
Weighing with a spring balance
A common suggestion for weighing hives to assess stores is to use a spring balance supported on a lever arrangement improvised with two pieces of wood and a pivot. To weigh two Warré boxes, a 25 kg 'Pocket Balance' would suffice. The roof and quilt are removed and the balance is hooked under the handle on each side in turn and the observed weights added.
From the combined weights, subtract previously measured weights for the following:
Weight of box(es) (e.g. 4 kg for each box)
The resulting weight of stores will include the pollen reserve.
To increase control over the amount of lift, for example to lift just enough to take the weight, but not so much that bees come out of the gap created, the lever can be replaced by something with a screw thread. A joiners' sash cramp is suitable for this. The spring balance is hooked to the screw and connected with a chain and hook to the Warré box handle. See images below.
As the lifting is by the box handle, while the other side is pivoted on the rim of the box, this asymmetry introduces a slight underestimate of the stores weight of 8%.4 As it is safer to underestimate than overestimate winter stores, this error can be justifiably neglected.
The above methods could be made more accurate with a suitable, though possibly more expensive, digital weighing device, such as a baggage scale. Depending on the choice of scale, this may be easier to read and more sensitive.
More details of how to use this apparatus are given on David Heaf's website at:
Weighing with a weighing platform and digital scale
The above mentioned error is eliminated, the weighing conditions standardised, and the sensitivity increased by using a Andrew Janiak's beehive scale illustrated below.
The hive rests on a hinged platform fitted with a hook. A U-frame, resting in pivot slots on the platform, supports a digital weighing scale which is connected at the top end to a lever and at the bottom end to the hook. Lowering the lever handle lifts the hive and registers the weight on the scale. As only one side of the hive is lifted, and the load on the scale is further divided in two by the supporting apparatus next to the scale, the reading is multiplied by 4 to get an approximate hive weight.
The system can be calibrated by placing a known weight on the roof. The display is accurate to 60 g, i.e. 240 g (about half a pound) for the whole hive. The sensitivity is suitable for monitoring small weight fluctuations throughout the season.
The operation of the beehive scale, including instructions on how to construct the platform, is detailed in the user manual (PDF). A video of the beehive scale is available at:
Andrew Janiak can be contacted by email at andrew.janiak (at) gmail.com.
Warré lift incorporating a scale
This fork lift picks up the hive by the handles. The weight of the whole hive is registered on the scales. For more photos, see:
Torque wrench hefter
A hefter which weighs the hive with a torque wrench fitted to a suitable adapter, is described in a PDF document which can be downloaded at the following page:
The adapter is called a 'lever arm' in the document.
Torque wrench hive hefter
This compact device could be used with a Warré hive by putting the lever arm between the stand and the rear of the floor of the People's Hive.
Compact prizing action hefter
The outer fingers rest on the hive's floor board. The inner finger lifts the hive when the lever attached to the baggage scale is depressed towards the base board.
Construction details: www.instructables.com/id/Build-a-scale-to-weigh-bee-hives/
But see also primary source for snags : http://www.beehacker.com/wp/?page_id=55
1. Warré, É. (2010) Beekeeping for All. Northern Bee Books. Transl. by Heaf, D. J. & Heaf, P. A. from L' Apiculture pour Tous 12th edition. (Saint-Symphorien, 1948). Beekeeping for All is also available as a free download at http://warre.biobees.com/bfa.htm . p. 109.
2. Seeley, T. D. & Morse, R. A. (1976) The nest of the
honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) Insectes Sociaux 23(4), 495-512. Seeley &
Morse found an average of 17,800 bees in 5 thriving feral/wild nests in July/Aug. They
other investigators having found maximum populations of 27,000, 32,000, 42,000 and 45,000
in frame hives.
3. Winston, M. (1987) The biology of the honey bee. Harvard University Press. p. 54.
4. A spreadsheet compiled by Jonathan Powell from David Heaf's calculations is available at hefting_error_correction.xls